Wednesday, November 26, 2008

A Very Happy Thanksgiving!

"By proclamation of the President and the Governors of the individual States, the last Thursday of November is observed as a day of thanksgiving for the prosperity and happiness of the year.

Thanksgiving services are held in churches of all denominations, and pastors recount the national blessings and exhort to faithful citizenship.

We must not fail to state a hearty dinner of roast-turkey and cranberry sauce, etc., is necessary to all those who would properly celebrate the day."

The footnoteMaven will be spending the Thanksgiving Holiday with her family and will return December 1.

A Very Happy Thanksgiving To You All!


Duke's Cigarettes, 1885-1900.


Tuesday, November 25, 2008

What A Way To Start The Day

We have a rule at our house; no calls before 9am and no calls after 9pm. The rule was brought into effect during my children's teenage years and continues today.

So, when my phone rang this morning before eight I was concerned. It was my daughter calling from work. She never calls during work hours much less from a work phone, so I answered waiting for the first shoe to drop.

She started the conversation with, "Could you remove the curse?" "Which curse is that?" I asked.

"The one where you said I hope you have a child just like you," she said. "No way," I answered, "they're not even teenagers yet. What's happened?"

I was feeling a bit better, as it was stress and not panic I heard in her voice. Panic was the day I heard the police sirens in the background, but I'll leave that story for another day.

My grandson, the writer, was chewing on his pen in class when the end broke off in his mouth; he inhaled and it lodged in his throat. He couldn't breathe. The teacher, thinking he was choking on food, performed the Heimlich. It didn't work. Fortunately she had alerted the office and Ernie was called.

Ernie? My grandsons go to school in a very small town in Washington. The school's total enrollment is twenty-six students. Ernie is the paramedic, and the fire station is in the same block as the school. Ernie arrived, the piece was dislodged. Ernie gave the school his don't put things in your mouth lecture.

Disaster averted. Lesson learned.

No, I won't remove the curse my dear daughter, he isn't even close.

Note: I have not used my grandson's name. The last time I did he told me it was embarrassing. Now this would really be embarrassing.


Wednesday, November 19, 2008

Share Your Holiday Traditions


The topic for the next edition of the Carnival of Genealogy is:


- ¤ - defines "tradition" as, "the handing down of statements,
beliefs, legends, customs, information, etc., from generation to
generation, esp. by word of mouth or by practice."

- ¤ -

Thanksgiving, Christmas, and Hanukkah are right around the corner and
are typically rich with tradition.

- ¤ -

Other religious and family traditions go on throughout the year.

- ¤ -

What traditions were passed on to you from an earlier generation?
Do you keep those traditions?

- ¤ -

What tradition(s) will you or have you passed on to
a younger generation?

- ¤ -

Do you think they will keep it up?

- ¤ -

Do you care if they do?

- ¤ -

The Deadline For
Submissions Is
December 1, 2008

Attention All COG Participants

Please use a descriptive phrase in the title of any articles you plan to submit and/or write a brief description/introduction to your articles in the "comment" box of the blogcarnival submission form. This will give readers an idea of what you've written about and hopefully interest them in clicking on your link. Introductions for your articles will not be provided for you due to the volume of articles submitted. Thank you!

Also, check out Jasia's post "FAQs About The Carnival of Genealogy," for all you need to know about submitting a post. First-timers always welcome and greatly appreciated!

Submit your blog article to the next edition of the Carnival of Genealogy using the carnival submission form or select the 61st Edition COG poster in the upper right hand corner of this page. Past posts and future hosts can be found on the blog carnival index page.


Blogger and The footnoteMaven Kiss and Makeup

For several days now I have been unable to post to Blogger. Everything I created, when publish was hit, became a large white sheet of nothing. Four of my scheduled posts completely disappeared.

Now I'm not sure it was Blogger, but everything else on my computer worked.

To be certain there were no other problems, I did spend an hour on the phone with my cable provider as we ran down the list:

CP: Is your computer plugged in?

fM: Yes

CP: Is your computer turned on?

fM: Yes

CP: Are you plugged in to your modem?

fM: Yes

CP: Is your modem turned on?

fM: Yes

CP: Are there four steady green lights?

fM: Yes

CP: Have you reset your modem - leaving it unplugged for at least 35 seconds

fM: Yes - several times.

CP: Did you restart your computer?

fM: Yes - several times.

CP: Are your modem and your wireless router at least four feet apart?

fM: And that is necessary why?

CP: (Ignored question.)

CP: Are you standing on one leg, balancing Evidence Explained in one hand and the faithful family cat in the other, with your eyes crossed and your tongue sticking out the left side of your mouth?

fM: Sorry, my tongue is sticking out the right side of my mouth.

CP: You have your tongue sticking out the right side of your mouth? Well, that's your problem.

CP: Whew, we knew it wasn't our fault!

After this futile exercise, my email went crazy for the entire night.

As I can't really contact Blogger, I am unable to point a guilty finger at my cable provider or Blogger, by a preponderance of the evidence.

So, it's over, and for some mysterious reason everything seems to be working. Now, I'll just get on with it. Although it is hard to post with my eyes crossed and the cat is no help.


Working With Citations

Good good good good citations
I'm pickin' up good citations
Your giving me excitations
Good good good good citations [1]

Here is how I write family history articles and books using citations. This works the best for me and is meant only as a suggestion. When working with citations you must find the method that is the most productive for you.

I develop a Word document (or a document in any text editing program) called my Master Citation File. When I purchase a book, find a document, census, etc. I cite it immediately (it only takes a moment and you never have to do it again). Exactly as Elizabeth Shown Mills has done in her QuickCheck Model in Evidence Explained, I create a Source List Entry (Bibliographic), a First (Full) Reference Note, and a Subsequent (Short) Note for each source. (See below.)

Under the category Book it would look like this:

Source List Entry – Bibliographic Citation:

Ashenburg, Katherine. The Dirt On Clean: An Unsanitized History. New York: North Point Press, 2007.

First (Full) Reference Note:

1. Katherine Ashenburg, The Dirt On Clean: An Unsanitized History (New York: North Point Press, 2007), XX.

Subsequent (Short) Note.

11. Ashenburg, The Dirt On Clean, XX.

NOTE: Proofread to make sure the citations are correct. You only want to write a citation once.I use XX’s in place of numbers, as numbers will not always be the same.

-- Book
Dirt On Clean

Ashenburg, Katherine. The Dirt On Clean: An Unsanitized History. New York: North Point Press, 2007.

X. Katherine Ashenburg, The Dirt On Clean: An Unsanitized History (New York: North Point Press, 2007), XX.

X. Ashenburg, The Dirt On Clean, XX.
-- Census
-- Death Certificate
-- Magazine
-- Newspaper
-- Etc.

When I begin writing I open a new Word document and pull the sources I will be using from the main citation document and drop them in my new project document. This cuts down on the number of sources I have to draw from.

I keep this document open as I write. When I reach a point where I need to insert a citation I highlight the correct citation, copy, and paste in my project document as I write making sure to enter the correct page numbers.

I learned this the hard way. In one of my first projects I wrote my paper placing a red X in the spot where I needed a citation and continued writing until the document was finished. Then I had to go back and try to remember what the red X meant and create a footnote. Twenty pages into the paper I had to use one of the first citations again. I had to search the document for the original citation. It took three times as long to write the paper and I vowed I would never do this again. I developed this method and for me it works.

What are the first and subsequent references and how do you use them:

First and subsequent references to a source:

The first time you cite a source, the note should include publication information for that work as well as the page number on which the passage being cited can be found.

1. Katherine Ashenburg, The Dirt On Clean: An Unsanitized History (New York: North Point Press, 2007), 85.

For subsequent references to a source you have already cited, give only the author's last name, a short form of the title, and the page or pages cited. A short form of the title of a book is italicized; a short form of the title of an article is put in quotation marks.

4. Ashenburg, The Dirt On Clean, 188.

When you have two consecutive notes from the same source, you may use "Ibid." “Ibid.” is short for the Latin "Ibidem", meaning "the same". Use "Ibid." alone if the page number is the same. (When used, ibid. replaces as much of the immediately preceding citation as is identical with the current one.)

5. Ibid.

If the source is the same but the page number is different use “Ibid.” plus the page number.

6. Ibid., 61.

When an intervening source has been cited or more than two or three pages have elapsed, a short citation should be given. Then “Ibid.” may be used again.

6. Ashenburg, The Dirt On Clean, 250.
7. Ibid., 64

How To correctly Use Block Quotes:

Short Quotations

If a quotation runs fewer than ten lines of typed text, does not involve more than one paragraph, and is not an epigraph or a quotation of verse or poetry, enclose the quotation in double quotation marks (“ Quote ”), but do not otherwise set the quotation off from the text.

Longer Quotations

If a quotation runs more than ten lines of typed text, involves more than one paragraph, and is an epigraph or a quotation of verse or poetry, it is usually set off from the text.

A way of indicating this is to indent from the left, with either a justified or a ragged right margin, or to indent from both the left and right. The block of quote should be single-spaced. Do not use quotation marks at the beginning or end of the block quotation. Separate the block quote from the text below and above with a double space. (Chicago Manual of Style.)

Using Templates For Citations:

Randy, GeneaMusings, has written an interesting article on citations and given links to citation templates. There is nothing wrong with using a citation template.

That said, there are several things to consider.

First, the most important thing is to always cite your sources and be consistent.

-- Being consistent makes creating citations much easier, even with templates.
-- Consistency can lead to learning how to write citations without the assistance of templates.

Secondly, not all templates are created equal.

-- Just because a template is offered online "for free" doesn't mean it is correct.
-- Check its output against Evidence Explained by the Goddess of Citations, Elizabeth Shown Mills.
-- If it doesn't comply - adjust or don't use it.

As Family Historians we are trying to establish standards. Ms. Mills has set them, we should use them.

Below I show a comparison of the method used in the ProGenealogists' template and that used in QuickSheet: Citing Online Historical Resources, Elizabeth Shown Mills. Please note the difference.

ProGenealogists Template:'s 1880-1930 Census Images online, Population Schedules. The _underscore_ means that the phrase should be italicized.

[Year] U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), [City], [Twp.], [County], [State], ED xxx, Sheet xxx, Dwelling xxx, Family xxx, [Head] household, jpeg image, (Online: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007), subscription database, [Digital scan of original records in the National Archives, Washington, DC], , accessed [month year].

QuickSheet - Elizabeth Shown Mills (My template):

"Year United States Federal Census," database, ( : accessed Day Month Year), entry for Name, [b.] Year, City, County, State.'s 1880-1930 Census Images - All three:

Source List Entry:

"1880 United States Federal Census." Database. : 2007. [2]

Full Reference Note:

1. "1880 United States Federal Census," database, (Http:// : accessed 22 January 2007), entry for Leung Tung Wong, [b.] 1861/1862, holyoke, Hampden County Massachusetts. [3]

Short Reference Note

11. "1880 U.S. Federal Census," database entry for Leung Tung Wong, [b.] 1861/1862, Holyoke, Hampden Co., Mass. [4]

You could just as easily create your own templates for the most common sources you use based on the Evidence Explained standard as I did above.

I adhere to the Evidence Explained Standards in my family histories and papers. I am not as cautious in my blogs and I should be, as more people read my blogs then my papers. So do as I recommend not as I do.

As Family Historians let's establish some standards and stick to them.

[1] Wilson, Brian, and Mike Love. “Good Vibrations.” Lyrics. Good Vibrations, Single. Brian Wilson, 1966. Copyright ©1966 & 1978, Brian Wilson and Mike Love. Lyrics Freak ( : accessed 18 October 2007).

[2] Mills, Elizabeth Shown. QuickSheet: Citing Online Historical Resources. (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co. 2007), 2.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.


Saturday, November 15, 2008

One Of The Few Times I Saw My Father Cry!

I selected this image for the Alzheimer's Awareness Month poster because it reminded me of my father, head in hand after one of the phone calls.

It was simple things in the beginning. My grandmother would have what they called a panic attack. She was confused because she couldn't remember something. Her sister-in-law, Martha, had come to live with her and nurse her. Martha took her job very seriously and wore a stethoscope and carried a blood pressure cuff. She recorded everything.

Martha was constantly taking my Grandmother's blood pressure and listening to her heart. So when my Grandmother became forgetful, the calls from Martha began. Martha was frightened.

My mother was a nurse, so the telephone calls to my father were logical. "Dementia," my mother told my father. "There is nothing that can be done," she said. "We need to keep a close eye on her."

The forgetfulness escalated. The call came that my Grandmother had forgotten to dress one morning and was found wandering down the middle of the street wearing her walker and nothing more. A neighbor found her and called my father. Fortunately, my grandmother didn't remember what she had done.

The family made the decision to put her in a nursing home. It was a lovely nursing home in our small town. For a while things settled down.

Then the late night calls started. My grandmother had become combative. My father would be called to come to town and try to calm her down. Sometimes she recognized him, sometimes she didn't. When she did she begged my father to take her home, claiming that the nursing staff was beating her.

When my father came home after one of these late night trips he told my mother he was taking his mother back home. "No one is beating her," my mother told him. "I know," my father said, "but I can't take it anymore."

This disease exacts a very heavy toll on the family. It was one of the few times I saw my father cry!

Monday, November 10, 2008

Grandma's Love or Life On Mars

Oh Baby? Alien Baby?
Dillon Baby!

This is the first picture of my first grandchild. It has hung on the wall in my office since the day I brought it home from the doctor's office. I was going to be a grandma! I could not have been more thrilled.

I know it looks like an alien baby, but after examining it closely I found several things about him that looked just like me. Big head comes to mind.

Today he is a very handsome young man with a few too many girlfriends for Grandma's liking. We share a lot of interests and he has asked Santa for a camera. Now you know that pleases Grandma fM.

I had the pleasure of Dillon's and Wyatt's company for dinner out Friday night. Dillon was concerned that my friends that blog didn't have a picture of me wearing glasses so he drew one for me to post. footnoteMaven (the real thing) wearing glasses. And I did Smile for the Artist.

I do find the adoring barnyard
animals a little disconcerting.


Friday, November 7, 2008

7th Edition Smile For The Camera - A Reminder

November 10 Deadline

Smile For The Camera ~ A Carnival of Images

The word prompt for the 7th Edition of Smile For The Camera is Oh, Baby! Show us those wonderful family photographs of babies, or those you've collected. Share the ones that are too cute for words, or those only a mother could love. Your favorite of grandma or grandmas' favorite. Grandpa on a bear skin rug or grandpas' little love. Everyone has a baby photo, so let's see it!

Choose a photograph of an ancestor, relative, yourself, or an orphan photograph that is the epitome of Oh, Baby! and bring it to the carnival. Admission is free with every photograph!

Your submission may include as many or as few words as you feel are necessary to describe your treasured photograph. Those words may be in the form of an expressive comment, a quote, a journal entry, a poem (your own or a favorite), a scrapbook page, or a heartfelt article. The choice is yours!

Deadline for submission is midnight (PT)
10 November, 2008.


There are two options:

1. Send an email to the host, footnoteMaven. Include the title and permalink URL of the post you are submitting, and the name of your blog. Put 'Smile For The Camera' clearly in the title of your email!

2. Use the handy submission form provided by Blog Carnival, or select the Bumper Sticker in the upper right hand corner.

See you at the Carnival!

Tuesday, November 4, 2008

Alzheimer's Disease


The topic for the next edition of the Carnival of Genealogy is:

Alzheimer's Disease

- ¤ -

November is Alzheimer's Awareness Month and it's a good time to reflect on the impact that Alzheimer's Disease (dementia) has had on your family history.

- ¤ -

An estimated 5 million people in the U.S. are living with Alzheimer's Disease.

- ¤ -

A new case is diagnosed every 72 seconds.

- ¤ -

Undoubtedly someone you know will or has some form
of this debilitating dementia.

- ¤ -

Alzheimer's robs people of their memories and all that they could
have passed on in the way of family history.
What does that mean to you?

- ¤ -

If you are fortunate enough to have not been effected by Alzheimer's Disease
in your family, perhaps you will share the impact of another
serious medical condition that has impacted your family.

- ¤ -

How have you gone about researching your family's medical history?

- ¤ -

The Deadline For
Submissions Is
November 15, 2008

Attention All COG Participants

Please use a descriptive phrase in the title of any articles you plan to submit and/or write a brief description/introduction to your articles in the "comment" box of the blogcarnival submission form. This will give readers an idea of what you've written about and hopefully interest them in clicking on your link. Introductions for your articles will not be provided for you due to the volume of articles submitted. Thank you!

Also, check out Jasia's post "FAQs About The Carnival of Genealogy," for all you need to know about submitting a post. First-timers always welcome and greatly appreciated!

Submit your blog article to the next edition of the Carnival of Genealogy using the carnival submission form or select the 59th Edition COG poster in the upper right hand corner of this page. Past posts and future hosts can be found on the blog carnival index page.


I Love A Mystery!

Henk van Kampen, the Graveyard Rabbit of Utrecht and Het Gooi posted a very interesting photograph of a gravestone with the following inscription:

(Here rests my own sweet wife, our caring mother and grandmother Grietje de Graaf - Kroeze, born 14 Sept 1894, died 20 June 1977, spouse of R. de Graaf.
As you are now - so once was I
As I am now - so will you be. Psalms 103:8)

Henk asks:

Does anyone know the origin of this epitaph? There are many mentions of it on the web, but none with source. If any reader would care to enlighten me, please leave a comment or contact me.

Visit The Western Washington Graveyard Rabbit for "And The Answer Is!"

I Voted - I Did It For My Country



Here lies the body of Dr. Hayward,
A man who never voted.
Of such is the kingdom of Heaven.


Darling, Susan. Quaint Epitaphs. Boston: DeWolfe, Fiske & Co. 1902.

Sunday, November 2, 2008

Obituary - Charlo, Montana

We would clear the Mission Mountains of all the trees
if we had to use paper to list all the friends and family
involved in Denny’s life.

Dennis Mearl Palmer
1953 - 2008

— ¤ — ¤ —

Montana Designated Driver

Those of you who read the footnoteMaven will recognize the Mission Mountains in the photograph above from several of my Montana articles. Denny owned and loved the dog who became famous on Montana postcards as the "Montana Designated Driver." Years ago, Denny would set up a table at functions and have the dog autograph the postcard in return for a charitable contribution. He was always up to something! Denny is the first Palmer of our generation to break camp, he will be greatly missed.

— ¤ — ¤ —

Denny Palmer, 55, of Charlo, took his final pack trip on Tuesday, 28 October 2008, at his favorite home away from home, Fish Creek, near Alberton, Montana, after a wonderful weekend of hunting and reliving old times around the campfire with both his brothers, a niece, a nephew and friends, laughing until their sides ached. Denny was the second child born to Delbert and Bernice Palmer of Charlo on Sept. 6, 1953, in Missoula. “He was in a hurry then and never slowed down,” his mom said.

Denny was a mischievous child as he grew and attended school in Charlo and graduated with the class of 1972. Upon graduating, Denny worked as a security guard in Nevada, the movie theater in Ronan, Allentown in Charlo, and the city of Ronan.

On July 25, 1980, he married the love of his life Kay Brock at the family park. The couple recently celebrated their 27th wedding anniversary. Denny and Kay lived in Ronan where he operated his landscaping business and Kay worked for the Ronan Medical Clinic. In the spring of 2002 they left their urban life and moved into the big pink house on the family farm where he grew up in Charlo.

Denny had an infectious personality and laugh that touched so many and was regarded as “The Master of Pranks.” Everyone waited anxiously every year for the appearance of the “Lucky Leprechaun” on his dashing green horse during the St. Paddy’s Day parade in Ronan, or driving his dad’s tractor and the beautifully manicured manure spreader down the streets of Charlo for the Fourth of July celebration.

Denny was involved in many projects and organizations including Ronan City Beautification, Pheasants Forever, Ducks Unlimited, Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation, Mission Valley Humane Society, Ronan Volunteer Fire Department and the conductor of the Bailey Ridge Band, just to name a few - all of which reflect his love for animals and the great outdoors.

Denny is survived by his wife, Kay, and their four-legged children, Smokey Joe, Ace and Stanley Steamer Palmer; his Grandmother, Rachel Shriner of Libby; his Mom and Dad, Bernice and Del Palmer of Charlo; Brother, Skip (Sue) of Charlo; Niece, Jennifer Palmer-Nicholson (Jereme) Greydon, Rachel, Logan of Deer Lodge; Nephew, Justin Palmer of Charlo; Brother, David (Kim) of Ronan; Nephews, Brian (Sue) Tori, Billy, Richard, Macao, Casey; Niece, Caysie Palmer-Hertz (Adam) of Charlo; Niece, Stacy Palmer (Rich) Bayleigh, Olyvia; Sister, Charlene Palmer of Ronan; Nephew, Benjamin Montgomery of Atlanta, Ga.; Cousin/Brother, Eddie (Jan) Bowers of Spokane; Uncle, Louis Palmer of Charlo; Cousin, Harv Palmer (Linda) of Preston, WA; Cousin, Margaret Palmer Hurd (Gary) of Whitefish, MT; Cousin, Marjorie Palmer Harper (Dan) of Missoula, MT; Cousin, Janice Elaine Palmer of Stevensville, MT; Aunt, Lois Statler of Spokane; Aunt Elvira and Uncle Ben both of Libby.

He was preceded in death by Grandparents, E.M and Olive Palmer; Uncle, Bill Palmer; Aunt, Lucille Palmer of Charlo; Grandpa, Dee Shriner; Aunt, Ruth Hutton; Cousins, Jimmy and Lori Osborne of Libby.

Please join the family in a time of jokes and storytelling in celebration of Denny’s life Sunday, Nov. 2, at the Ronan Community Center from noon to 4 p.m. A potluck meal will be served.

In lieu of flowers there has been a Dennis Palmer Memorial Fund set up at Community Bank of Ronan, Montana.


Saturday, November 1, 2008

A Democrat In Republican Territory

A Chapter in the Continuing Saga of the Campbells of Carroll County, Missouri. The election of my Great Great Grandfather John Campbell. Submitted for the Election Day Carnival of Genealogy - November 1.

JOHN CAMPBELL stared at himself in the mirror above the washbasin preparing for his first day as Sheriff of Carroll County. He unfolded the straight edged razor and pressed it against his cheek. He was a handsome man, sandy complexion, just under six feet tall, and unlike most of his contemporaries he was clean-shaven.

He finished shaving and dressed in the long black broadcloth tailcoat worn by the men of his time. He wore a white linen shirt and a black bow tie; a flash of gold could be seen at the cuffs, the gold cufflinks he always wore, and his one concession to vanity. He looked in the mirror one final time and donning his silk top hat headed out from the jail to the courthouse.

The election had been a runaway vote in his favor. He had beaten his opponent, the Republican Brasher, by 298 votes. In fact, he had garnered more votes than any other candidate in the election, including the three candidates for the presidency, Garfield, Hancock and Weaver.

The election did not fall strictly along party lines even though Jos. Turner, the editor of the Carroll Record, had called for all Republicans to remember their allegiance to the party and mark no vote for a Democrat. Sentiments against the southern sympathizers of the Democratic Party still ran high in Carroll County, eleven years after the end of the War Between the States. John Campbell had been a slave owning southern sympathizer, but he had received the votes of members of both parties.

That both Democrats and Republicans voted for him spoke volumes to the respect the community held for him. That respect stemmed from the fact that John had faithfully served as a Deputy Sheriff in Carrollton for eight years prior to being elected Sheriff.

His old friend and business partner John W. Clinkscales had appointed him deputy in 1872, and John worked for him in that position for four years. Clinkscales’ successor, George L. Winfrey, had appointed John deputy as well. John obviously liked the job and proved he was an honest and conscientious public servant who enjoyed the implicit confidence and highest regard of all who knew him.

Even Jos. Turner later admitted that John Campbell had filled the position of sheriff with fidelity and integrity and was a highly esteemed man who was honest and upright in all his dealings. High praise coming from the man who in this election had charged all Republicans not to vote for John Campbell because he was a Democrat.

The first residents of the newly constructed County Jail were Sheriff John Campbell, his wife Sarah and their daughters Sallie, Hattie and Reed. James and John had stayed on at the farm in Mandeville to keep it running.

The County Court had appropriated $10,500 for the building site on North Folger Street and that amount included the construction costs. The ease with which the old jail could be broken into, prisoner escapes, and the extreme unsanitary conditions prompted the appropriation.

During John Hawkins’ time as Sheriff in 1867, someone had excavated under the jail and removed the stones from underneath the vault where the papers of the County Clerk and large sums of money belonging to the County were kept. The thieves were a few days late and $7,000 short, the money having been deposited in the bank just days before. Unfortunately, the Sheriff had kept his own money in the vault and sustained a large loss. The County had learned its lesson and moved to correct the situation, to the benefit of the newly elected Sheriff Campbell.

The jail had been built with the Sheriff’s living quarters included. When John was elected, Sarah was elected as well, for it was expected she would cook the meals served to the prisoners. Sarah was very fortunate, for as of March 12, 1881; there had been no prisoners and no meals. In an article in the Carroll Record the editor described Carrollton as having a good jail, “for which we have at present no use.”

The duties of the Sheriff in Carrollton in 1880 were many and varied. The Sheriff paid the bills for all court related expenses, maintained the jail, transported the prisoners to the courthouse, and conducted Sheriff’s sales. The sheriff was paid a flat fee for individual portions of the work and a percentage of the civil cases and sales.

John Campbell’s job wasn’t all paperwork. Carrollton was still in its infancy and this part of Missouri was considered the West, the edge of the frontier. It had its fair share of murder and manslaughter. During his term as Sheriff it fell to John and his men to apprehend them. A man named Alex Powell was wanted for murder and had been spotted in Mandeville. John went out to find him and Cousin Will Graham gave an account of the arrest to Frank Tull. This is the story as it was recorded in the Campbell – Graham Manuscript:

“I remember when your grandfather, John Campbell came to Mandeville to arrest Alex Powell. Cousin John Campbell was Sheriff of Carroll County and came right over there to the house where I live now and asked my father if Alex Powell was around Mandeville. Powell was wanted for murdering a man in some county north of here and was known as a bad character. Cousin John did not have a gun and said he never needed one to arrest a man, but my father made him take our old shotgun to go after Powell who my father knew was cutting some timber to make staves in a woods not far down that hill to the west of the house. Cousin John walked upon Powell and placed him under arrest before Powell knew anyone was near. He brought Powell to our house and had one of us hold the gun on him while cousin John handcuffed him to be taken to Carrollton. A wagon was borrowed from my father to take Powell to the jail in Carrollton.”

By the last year of his term as Sheriff, the rigors of the job were getting to be more than John wanted to deal with. He was nearing his seventy-second birthday and had decided not to run for reelection. He felt it was time to retire and spend some time with Sarah and their youngest daughter Hattie.

Monday, January 8, 1883, John Campbell began to tie up the loose ends of his term as Sheriff of Carroll County, Missouri.